Posts Tagged ‘Parametric’
Size: 910mm x 650mm
Tools: Rhino, Grasshopper, HAL, ABB IRB-6640 Robot, Pentel Aquash Water Brush, Ink
For information on purchasing these drawings, please contact the Salamatina Gallery.
We are moving towards an a future where the terms “nature” and “technology” will not be seen as opposites. Natural systems are increasingly being augmented, modified, and hybridized by the hardware and software that enables contemporary life. Likewise, the systems we make are increasingly life-like. Our technologies are not quite alive, not sentient, but still resonate with a vital energy.
In this context, I am interested exploring work that is both natural and technological. I try to decode the underlying structures of natural systems and then use these in the production work that is complex without being complicated. Using a variety of digital technologies, from scripting languages to digital fabrication, the work is both grown and made. That is, I focus on creating the literal code, the rules and parameters of a system, and then allow the system to take on a life of its own as it’s deployed.
In the Scripted Movement Series of drawings/paintings, I have begun to experiment with the use of industrial robotics. Typically used in the production of cars or other mass-produced items of contemporary culture, these robots are essentially larger, stronger, and more precise version of the human arm. Made up of a series of joints that mimic yet extend the movements of shoulder, elbow, and wrist, the robot has a wide range of highly control motion. The real value of these robots is that, like the human arm, their usefulness is completely determined by the tool that is placed in its hand. Although with industry these tools include welding torches, vacuum grippers, and saws, really any tool can be used.
Presented with an opportunity to use one of these robots, I decided that trying to teach myself and the robot to draw would be a good first step in understanding the nature of the machine. Each of the works produced in this series was entirely programmed and drawn through software and hardware. None of the lines or curves was manually drawn either within the computer or in physical reality. Rather, I created a series of different scripts or programs in the computer that would generate not only the work shown here, but an infinite number of variations on a theme. Essential to the programming was understanding the relationships between the robot and human movement and control. Unlike a printer or plotter which draws from one side of the paper to the other, the robot produces the drawings similarly to how a human might: one line at a time. The speed, acceleration, brush type, ink viscosity, and many other variables needed to be considered in the writing of the code.
The contents of each drawing/painting explore a variety of themes but all in some way touch on difference and repetition. I am interested in how a singular element (a line, a circle, a triangle, etc.) can be drawn again and again in an infinite number of different ways to produce something that is more than the sum of its parts. The work is inspired by the techniques of artists such as Sol Lewitt and others who explored procedural processes in the production of their work. The script, or set of rules, as well as the ability or inability of the robot to follow these instructions is the focus of the work. There is almost a primitive and gestural quality to the drawings created through the tension between the rules and the robot’s physical movement. Precisely imprecise.
Size: 36′ x 6.5′ x 6″
Materials: Amber Plyboo
Tools: Rhino, Grasshopper
Location: Roka Akor, 801 Montgomery St, San Francisco, California
Fabrication: S/U/M, Oakland, California
Matsys was commissioned to design and fabricate a feature wall for the new bar of Roka Akor. The wall’s gentle undulations evoke the region’s rolling hills while also making resonating with waves and wind. Inspired by Japanese screen paintings of cloudy mountain scenes and the existing vertical wood rib theme found elsewhere in the Bar, the new wall adds a distinct element to the Bar’s main seating area.
Similar to the Zero/Fold Screen completed in 2010, Matsys was interested in minimizing material waste in the fabrication of the wall by using parametric modeling to align adjacent ribs next to each other when cut. The back side of one rib becomes the front side of the next.
Location: Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
Materials: Wood Lathe, Stainless Steel Bolts
Tools: Rhino, Grasshopper, Kangaroo
Dimensions: 35′ x 35′ x 7′
This project was developed during a fast-paced 3-day workshop with students at Tulane University. Building on the earlier gridshell research conducted during the SmartGeometry 2012 workshop, this grid shell attempted to improve on various aspects of the earlier prototype. In an effort to both increase fabrication speed while decreasing material waste, the parametric model integrated more material feedback and analysis. First, the model would warn the user if the timber member length exceeded the available timber members in order to eliminate the need for splicing members together. Second, the model would produce warnings whenever the maximum bending radius was exceeded, assuring that the surface curvature was producible at full scale. Third, the edge beam members were doubled to increase the overal stiffness of the beam.
Initial Parametric Modeling and Workshop Instructor: Andrew Kudless
Design, Fabrication, and Assembly: Charles Boyne, Jack Waterman, Kyle Graham, Sam Naylor, Sarah Cumming, Dennis Palmadessa, Elizabeth Kovacevic, Lauren Evans
Size: 8m x 8m x 3m
Materials: 4mm Translucent Coroplast, Nylon Cable Ties, Steel Foundations, PVC and Steel Reinforcement Arches
Tools: Rhino, Grasshopper, Kangaroo, Python, Lunchbox, Rhinoscript
Location: Wan Chai, Hong Kong
Event: Detour 2012
Shellstar is a lightweight temporary pavilion that maximizes its spatial performance while minimizing structure and material. Commissioned for Detour, an art and design festival in Hong Kong in December 2012, the pavilion was designed to be an iconic gathering place for the festival attendees. Located on an empty lot within the Wan Chai district of Hong Kong, the design emerged out of a desire to create a spatial vortex whereby visitors would feel drawn into the pavilion center and subsequently drawn back out into the larger festival site. Working fully within a parametric modeling environment, the design was quickly developed and iterated with the 6 weeks of design, fabrication, and assembly. The design process can be broken down into 3 processes that were enabled by advanced digital modeling techniques:
The form emerged out of a digital form-finding process based on the classic techniques developed by Antonio Guadi and Frei Otto, among others. Using Grasshopper and the physics engine Kangaroo, the form self-organizes into the catenary-like thrust surfaces that are aligned with the structural vectors and allow for minimal structural depths.
The structure is composed of nearly 1500 individual cells that are all slightly non-planar. In reality, the cells must bend slightly to take on the global curvature of the form. However, the cells cannot be too non-planar as this would make it difficult to cut them from flat sheet materials. Using a custom Python script, each cell is optimized so as to eliminate any interior seams and make them as planar as possible, greatly simplifying fabrication.
Using more custom python scripts, each cell was unfolded flat and prepared for fabrication. The cell flanges and labels were automatically added and the cell orientation was analyzed and then rotated to align the flutes of the Coroplast material with the principal bending direction of the surface.
Schematic Design: Andrew Kudless / Matsys
Design Development and Prototyping: Andrew Kudless and Riyad Joucka
Fabrication and Assembly: Art Lab / Ricci Wong, Wong Sifu, Geoff Wong, Wilton Ip, Justin ling, April Lau, Andrew Kudless, Riyad Joucka, Eric Lo, John Thurtle, Garkay Wong, Felice Chap, Kenneth Cheung, Godwin Cheung, Quentin Yiu, Rena Li, Garesa Hao En, Cheryl Ceclia Lui, Huang Xinliu, Horace Cheng
3D Scanning of Built Structure: Topcon HK using a Faro Focus3D Scanner
Size: 190cm x 90cm x 90cm
Materials: Composite paper-backed wood veneers from Lenderink Technologies. Cherry veneer (exterior) and poplar veneer (interior).
Tools: Grasshopper, Kangaroo, Python, Lunchbox, Rhinoscript
Location: Permanent Collection of the Centre Pompidou, Paris, France
Exhibition: Multiversites Creatives, May 2 – August 6, 2012
Project courtesy Salamatina Gallery. Please contact the gallery for more information on the project.
Description: The latest in a series of projects exploring cellular morphologies, Chrysalis (III) investigates the self-organization of barnacle-like cells across an underlying substrate surface. The cells shift and slide across the surface as they attempt to find a more balanced packed state through the use of a relaxed spring network constrained to the surface. Each cell is composed of two parts: a cone-like outer surface made from cherry veneer and a non-planer inner plate made from poplar veneer that stresses the outer cone into shape. Each of the 1000 cell components are unfolded flat in the digital model, digitally fabricated, and hand assembled.
Credits: Andrew Kudless (Design), Jason Vereschak and Emily Kirwan (Fabrication Support), Maciej Fiszer (for the lending of assembly space in Paris), and the Pompidou Centre Industrial Prospectives Department (Valerie Guillaume, Hélène Ducate, Dominique Kalabane, and Marguerite Reverchon)
Location: Minneapolis, Minnesota
Size: 25′ x 30′ x 12′
Material: 1/8″ Corrugated Cardboard
Description: This project was the result of a 4-day workshop taught with Marc Swackhamer at the University of Minnesota School of Architecture in March 2012. The workshop explored the design and fabrication of shell structures. Inspired by the work of designers such as Guadi, Otto, and Isler, the workshop explored how digital tools could be used in the design, simulation, and fabrication of a contemporary thin-shell structure. The workshop was structured in the following way:
- Day 1: Parametric Modeling Tutorials and Lecture on Thin-Shell Structures
- Day 2: Design Competition among student teams
- Day 3: Fabrication
- Day 4: Assembly
Credits: The project could not have happened without the amazingly talented and dedicated students at the University of Minnesota who designed and built the structure using the tools that I provided them at the beginning of the workshop. Thanks to all of them:
Namdi Alexander, Daniel Aversa, Tia Bell, Alex Berger, Amy Ennen, Andrew Gardner, John Greene, Kelly Greiner, Artemis Hansen, David Horner, Jonathon Jacobs, Hwan Kim, Jenn McGinnity, Shona Mosites, Kristen Salkas, Stuart Shrimpton, Paul Treml, Katie Umenthum, Pablo Villamil.
This workshop explored material systems through an iterative design process that alternates between analogue and digital modeling techniques. The workshop introduced students to various physical form-finding techniques that investigate and simulate the interrelatedness of material, structure, and form. After completing these hands-on experiments, students were given an intensive introduction to parametric modeling using the Grasshopper plug-in for the 3D modeling program Rhino. Using this generative design environment, students began to explore how to abstract the principles learned in the physical form-finding models into digital para-metric models. Finally, workshop students developed a series of digitally fabricated models from their digital models that resonate with the logic and material forces of the initial physical experiments.
The workshop was part of a larger studio taught by Prof. Wendy Fok of WE-Designs.org.
Aldgate, one of the medieval gates of London, sits between the old City and the new eastern development for the 2012 Olympics. The Aldgate Aerial Park resists the binary relationship of the traditional gate typology. More than just a singular threshold between one urban zone and another, the network of vaults span multiple streets and pathways. Rather than a simple opening between one place and another, it expands out into the city and forms its own identity as a new urban park. The aerial park creates a space of relaxation and community above the chaos of the city streets. The cells of the park include amphitheaters, gardens, restrooms, and open spaces. Rather than reinforce the dividing line between new and old London, the new gate attempts to create a spatial blur that brings people together.
Size: 20″ x 20″ x 20″
Description: Working with an updated version of the script that produced the earlier Diploid Lamps, this new lamp is fabricated entirely without glue. Every connection is a locking tab that enables the lamp to be built quickly despite the nearly 1000 parts. For price, please email firstname.lastname@example.org
Description: Although digital fabrication has allowed architects and designers to explore more complex geometries, one of the byproducts has been a lack of attention to material waste. Often digitally fabricated projects are generated from a top-down logic with the parameters of typical material sheet sizes being subordinated to the end of the design process. This project attempts to reverse that logic by starting from the basic material dimensions and then generating a series of components that will minimize material waste during CNC cutting while still producing an undulating, light-filtering screen in the gallery.
Location: California College of the Arts, San Francisco
Description: FLUX: Architecture in a Parametric Landscape by CCA Architecture/MEDIAlab is an exhibition that focuses on the emerging field of advanced digital design. In the last two decades of architectural practice, new digital technologies have evolved from being simply representational tools invested in the depiction of existing models of architectural space to becoming significant performative machines that have transformed the ways in which we both conceive and configure space and material. These tools for design, simulation, and fabrication, have enabled the emergence of new digital diagrams and parametric landscapes—often emulating genetic and iterative dynamic evolutionary processes—that are not only radically changing the ways in which we integrate disparate types of information into the design process, but are also significantly altering the methodological strategies that we use for design, fabrication and construction. After the early digital explosion of the 1990’s, new forms of rigor and production have entered into the field of architecture, supporting the emergence of parametric and building information modeling and the enhanced use of computational geometry and scripting that together represent the second critical wave of digital design practices. That our current models of space are far more continuous, variant and complex, is specifically a result of the tools we are using to produce them, an inevitable byproduct of the ever-expanding capacities of digital computation and related fabrication technologies as these intersect with theoretical trajectories that long ago dismantled the social, functional and technological truths of the early part of this century.
The FLUX exhibition was generated in conjunction with this year’s CCA Architecture Lecture Series focused on the integration of digital practices and design, CCA MEDIAlab’s digital workshops and the International Smart Geometry conference held in San Francisco in the spring of 2009. The content of the exhibition is organized through a series of thematic categories each of which explores a set of spatial logics that have been transformed through advanced digital practices: Stacked Aggregates, Modular Assemblages, Pixelated Fields, Cellular Clusters, Serial Iterations, Woven Meshes, Material Systems, and Emergent Environments. In this exhibit, these themes are elaborated through the presentation of 50 built works and experimental architectural projects, and are expanded by analytical diagrams and 3D printed models generated by CCA architecture students.
The FLUX installation, developed by a team of CCA faculty and students, also explores the possibilities of parametric modeling and digital fabrication through the production of the exhibition armature. Produced using CCA’s new CNC router and advanced parametric modeling techniques, the undulating structure expands and contracts as its volume extends down the center of the long nave space. Through the use of parametric modeling and a series of custom designed scripts, the installation design can be quickly updated to address new design criteria. From the thickness of the ribs to the overall twisting geometry and perforated skins, the spatial form of the armature is controlled through a complex set of relationships defined by its formal, performative, and fabrication constraints.
Architect: CCA Architecture/MEDIAlab
Location: San Francisco, United States
Date: 2008 – 2009
The FLUX installation, developed over 6 months by a team of CCA faculty and students, explores the possibilities of parametric modeling and digital fabrication at CCA. Produced using CCA’s brand new CNC router and advanced parametric modeling techniques, the structure undulates in plan and section producing a sense of expansion and contraction in the long Nave space. Through the use of parametric modeling and a series of custom designed scripts, the installation design can be quickly updated to address new design criteria. From the thickness of the ribs to the overall twisting geometry and perforated skins, the geometry is controlled through a complex set of relationships between its formal, performative, and fabrication constraints.
Director of Architecture: Ila Berman
Project Coordinator and Director of the MEDIAlab: Andrew Kudless
Installation Design: Kory Bieg, Andre Caradec, Andrew Kudless, Ila Berman
Exhibition Curation: Andrew Kudless with Ila Berman and Marc Fornes
Graphic Design Assistants: Jessica Gibson, Andy Payne, Melissa Spooner
Parametric Design Consultant: Andy Payne
Installation Team: Laurice der Bedrossian, Yoon Choi, Stephanie Close, Loi Dinh, David Garcia, Jessica Gibson, John Hobart-Culleton, Charlotte Hofstetter, Madaline Honig, Wayne Lin, Sandra Lopez, Mariko Low, Jen Melendez, Michelle Mucker, Andrew Peters, Jason Rhein, Ocean Rogoff, Angela Todorova, Dianne de la Torre, Michael Victoria, Olesya Yefimov
Graphic Design, Modeling and Scripting Team: Olutobi Adamolekun, Lynn Bayer, Ripon DeLeon, Anthony Diaz, Alexa Getting, Jessica Gibson, Noah Greer, Benjamin Harth, Madeline Honig, Elizabeth Jackson, Pouya Khakpour, Anna Leach, Ryan Lee, Charles Ma, David Manzanares Garcia, Ariane Mates, Andy Payne, Harsha Pelimuhandiram, Michael Perkins, Javier Rodriguez, Ricardo Ruiz, Melissa Spooner, Jessica Stuenkel, Vladimir Vlad, Duncan Young
Sponsors: SolidThinking, K Bieg Design, SUM Arch, Vogue Graphics
CNC Fabrication Support: Ryan Buyssens, Jo Slota
Consultation: Chris Chalmers, Andrew Sparks
Location: Berkeley Art Museum
Description: From artists such as Naum Gabo to architects such as Antoni Gaudi, Felix Candela, and Frei Otto, the geometric entity known as a hyperbolic paraboloid has emerged as something that is both formally evocative and easily constructible. Although composed of only straight lines, the hyperbolic paraboloid traces a complexly curved surface. For this installation, the central space of the Berkeley Art Museum is tied together with a series of HyPar surfaces that emerge from the upper levels and then bifurcate at each balcony, framing a series of video projections.
The installation was created to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Matrix, the contemporary art department of the Berkeley Art Museum. Although it was only commissioned for a one-night party on April 25, 2008, the curators of the museum decided to keep it up for a few months. The installation consists of around 15,000′ of nylon rope, 4 steel frames, 4 laser-cut acrylic column braces (affectionately knowns as the “armadillos”), and 4 amazing videos created by Chris Lael Larson of Natural Lighting in Portland.
Design and Fabrication
Andrew Kudless of Matsys
Lisa Iwamoto and Craig Scott of IwamotoScott
Joel Hirschfeld of Hirschfeld Fabrications
Motion Graphics Design
Chris Lael larson of Natural-Lighting.com
Location: New York
Description: Matsys provided computational design consulting for Cook + Fox on this project. The project was sited in the lobby of a fashion designer’s studio in a Manhattan tower. The design team needed tools to help them model, visualize, and fabricate their design. Matsys created several rhinoscripts that could be used by the design team to iteratively explore their design concept.
Location: Banvard Gallery, Knowlton School of Architecture, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Size: 12′ x 4′ x 8′
Description: This project is the latest development in an ongoing area of research into cellular aggregate structures that has examined honeycomb and voronoi geometries and their ability to produce interesting structural, thermal, and visual performances. The voronoi algorithm is used in a wide range of fields including satellite navigation, animal habitat mapping, and urban planning as it can easily adapt to local contingent conditions. Within our research, it is used as a tool to facilitate the translation and materialization of data from particle-simulations and other point-based data. Through this operation, points are transformed into volumetric cells which can be unfolded, CNC cut, and reassembled into larger aggregates.
Credits: Andrew Kudless and Ivan Vukcevich with Ryan Palider, Zak Snider, Austin Poe, Camie Vacha, Cassie Matthys, Christopher Friend, Nicholas Cesare, Anthony Rodriguez, Mark Wendell, Joel Burke, Brandon Hendrick, Chung-tzu Yeh, Doug Stechschultze, Gene Shevchenko, Kyu Chun, Nick Munoz, and Sabrina Sierawski, and Ronnie Parsons
Location: London, UK
Description: This research was pursued as part of a MA dissertation in Emergent Technologies and Design at the Architectural Association. The central aim of the research is the development of a material system with a high degree of integration between its design and performance. This integration is inherent to natural material systems for they have been developed through evolutionary means which intricately tie together the form, growth, and behavior of the organism. In industrial material systems, the level of integration is far lower resulting in wide and potentially problematic gaps between its means of production, its geometric and material definition, and its environmental performance. This research explores integration strategies for a particular industrially produced material system for use in architectural applications.
This research develops a honeycomb system that is able to adapt to diverse performance requirements through the modulation of the system’s inherent geometric and material parameters while remaining within the limits of available production technologies. The Honeycomb Morphologies Project is based on the desire to form an integrated and generative design strategy using a biomimetic approach to architectural design and fabrication.
The system developed in this research presents an open framework through which the designer can work, enabling a more integral relationship between the various conflicting and overlapping issues in the development of an architectural project. The research represents a tool, waiting to be actively used with specific project data and embedded in a built artifact.
The Manifold installation was a large scale prototype constructed for the AA 2004 Projects Review. The installation explored the research developed in the Honeycomb Morphologies Project and extended it to a more architectural scale.
Credits: Andrew Kudless with help from Jayendra Sha, Nikolaos Stathopoulos, Giorgos Kailis, Matthew Johnson, Ranidia Lemon, Muchuan Xu, Grace Li, Scott Cahill, and Wongpat Suetrong.
Description: This short (1-day) research project explores the use of large scale cellular structures in the design of towers. The tower is built up from a series of cells, each spanning 15 floors. The nature of each cell is to expand horizontally as load is applied. This force is countered by tension in the floor plates. The facade is composed of two types of cells, one of no curvature and one of single curvature. A parametric model was produced to explore the rotation, height, and size of floors.