MATSYS

Posts Tagged ‘Cellular’

SCIN Cube


Location: London Design Festival, SCIN Gallery
Date: 2012
Materials: 3D Printed Concrete
Tools: Rhino, Grasshopper, Weaverbird
Dimensions: 20cm x 20cm x 20cm

Project Description
SCIN, a material resource center for designers and architects in London, asked a small group of emerging designers to produce a small cube that represents their approach to design, materiality, and technology for an exhibition that coincides with the London Design Festival. Our submission reflects the reoccurring presence in our work of cellular solids, a transmaterial grouping characterized by high strength to weight ratios. The cube was designed using a network of digital cellular bodies that are first relaxed to produce a more uniform field and then structurally differentiated in relation to their distance to the outside surface. The inner core’s cell edges are extremely thin and fragile yet are protected by the multiple layers of increasing more robust edges closer to the cube boundary. For the exhibition we collaborated with the fabrication consultancy Emerging Objects to create a simple yet lightweight cube that is digitally printed from concrete. This sample of our work embodies our interests and facility with digital craft, material innovation, and structural performance.

Credits
Andrew Kudless (design), Emerging Objects (fabrication)


Photo by Emerging Objects

Photo by Emerging Objects

Photo by Emerging Objects

Photo by Emerging Objects

SCIN Cube 04

SCIN Cube 03

Shellstar Pavilion


Date: 2012
Size: 8m x 8m x 3m
Materials: 4mm Translucent Coroplast, Nylon Cable Ties, Steel Foundations, PVC and Steel Reinforcement Arches
Tools: Rhino, Grasshopper, Kangaroo, Python, Lunchbox, Rhinoscript
Location: Wan Chai, Hong Kong
Event: Detour 2012

Description:
Shellstar is a lightweight temporary pavilion that maximizes its spatial performance while minimizing structure and material. Commissioned for Detour, an art and design festival in Hong Kong in December 2012, the pavilion was designed to be an iconic gathering place for the festival attendees. Located on an empty lot within the Wan Chai district of Hong Kong, the design emerged out of a desire to create a spatial vortex whereby visitors would feel drawn into the pavilion center and subsequently drawn back out into the larger festival site. Working fully within a parametric modeling environment, the design was quickly developed and iterated with the 6 weeks of design, fabrication, and assembly. The design process can be broken down into 3 processes that were enabled by advanced digital modeling techniques:

Form-Finding
The form emerged out of a digital form-finding process based on the classic techniques developed by Antonio Guadi and Frei Otto, among others. Using Grasshopper and the physics engine Kangaroo, the form self-organizes into the catenary-like thrust surfaces that are aligned with the structural vectors and allow for minimal structural depths.

Surface Optimization
The structure is composed of nearly 1500 individual cells that are all slightly non-planar. In reality, the cells must bend slightly to take on the global curvature of the form. However, the cells cannot be too non-planar as this would make it difficult to cut them from flat sheet materials. Using a custom Python script, each cell is optimized so as to eliminate any interior seams and make them as planar as possible, greatly simplifying fabrication.

Fabrication Planning
Using more custom python scripts, each cell was unfolded flat and prepared for fabrication. The cell flanges and labels were automatically added and the cell orientation was analyzed and then rotated to align the flutes of the Coroplast material with the principal bending direction of the surface.

Credits:
Schematic Design: Andrew Kudless / Matsys
Design Development and Prototyping: Andrew Kudless and Riyad Joucka
Fabrication and Assembly: Art Lab / Ricci Wong, Wong Sifu, Geoff Wong, Wilton Ip, Justin ling, April Lau, Andrew Kudless, Riyad Joucka, Eric Lo, John Thurtle, Garkay Wong, Felice Chap, Kenneth Cheung, Godwin Cheung, Quentin Yiu, Rena Li, Garesa Hao En, Cheryl Ceclia Lui, Huang Xinliu, Horace Cheng
3D Scanning of Built Structure: Topcon HK using a Faro Focus3D Scanner


ShellStar-7733

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7776

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7792

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7813

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7817

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7823

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7829

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7849

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7852

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar-7854

Photo: Dennis Lo

ShellStar_Diagrams 1

ShellStar_Diagrams 2

ShellStar_Diagrams 3

Shell Star Assembly and Construction from Riyad Joucka on Vimeo.

Photo: 3D Scan of Shellstar: No. of scanned points: 170 Million, No. of Set-ups: 10, Scanner: FARO FOCUS3D, Scanning Time: 1.5 hrs, Data Processing: ~15 minutes, Avg. Pt. Spacing : ~5 mm

Chrysalis (III)

Date: 2012
Size: 190cm x 90cm x 90cm
Materials: Composite paper-backed wood veneers from Lenderink Technologies. Cherry veneer (exterior) and poplar veneer (interior).
Tools: Grasshopper, Kangaroo, Python, Lunchbox, Rhinoscript
Location: Permanent Collection of the Centre Pompidou, Paris, France
Exhibition: Multiversites Creatives, May 2 – August 6, 2012

Project courtesy Salamatina Gallery. Please contact the gallery for more information on the project.

Description: The latest in a series of projects exploring cellular morphologies, Chrysalis (III) investigates the self-organization of barnacle-like cells across an underlying substrate surface. The cells shift and slide across the surface as they attempt to find a more balanced packed state through the use of a relaxed spring network constrained to the surface. Each cell is composed of two parts: a cone-like outer surface made from cherry veneer and a non-planer inner plate made from poplar veneer that stresses the outer cone into shape. Each of the 1000 cell components are unfolded flat in the digital model, digitally fabricated, and hand assembled.

For more information about the exhibition, please download the Multiversites Creatives press releases in English or French.

Credits: Andrew Kudless (Design), Jason Vereschak and Emily Kirwan (Fabrication Support), Maciej Fiszer (for the lending of assembly space in Paris), and the Pompidou Centre Industrial Prospectives Department (Valerie Guillaume, Hélène Ducate, Dominique Kalabane, and Marguerite Reverchon)

Orthographic Drawings

Diagram of Plate Formation

Still frames of 2D animation of cell relaxation from pure voronoi network to relaxed voronoi network (vorlax)

Assembly Diagram showing the various stages over 5 days in different colors

Vorlax in 2D from Andrew Kudless on Vimeo.

Vorlax on Surface from Andrew Kudless on Vimeo.

Catalyst Hexshell


Date: 2012
Location: Minneapolis, Minnesota
Size: 25′ x 30′ x 12′
Material: 1/8″ Corrugated Cardboard

Description: This project was the result of a 4-day workshop taught with Marc Swackhamer at the University of Minnesota School of Architecture in March 2012. The workshop explored the design and fabrication of shell structures. Inspired by the work of designers such as Guadi, Otto, and Isler, the workshop explored how digital tools could be used in the design, simulation, and fabrication of a contemporary thin-shell structure. The workshop was structured in the following way:

  • Day 1: Parametric Modeling Tutorials and Lecture on Thin-Shell Structures
  • Day 2: Design Competition among student teams
  • Day 3: Fabrication
  • Day 4: Assembly

Credits: The project could not have happened without the amazingly talented and dedicated students at the University of Minnesota who designed and built the structure using the tools that I provided them at the beginning of the workshop. Thanks to all of them:
Namdi Alexander, Daniel Aversa, Tia Bell, Alex Berger, Amy Ennen, Andrew Gardner, John Greene, Kelly Greiner, Artemis Hansen, David Horner, Jonathon Jacobs, Hwan Kim, Jenn McGinnity, Shona Mosites, Kristen Salkas, Stuart Shrimpton, Paul Treml, Katie Umenthum, Pablo Villamil.

Catalyst Hexshell from Andrew Kudless on Vimeo.

Construction drawing used by the team to divide the larger shell into smaller assemblies.

Catalyst Catenary Simulation from Andrew Kudless on Vimeo.

Catalyst Catenary Construction Time Lapse from Andrew Kudless on Vimeo.

Aldgate Aerial Park


Project Name: Aldgate Aerial Park
Year: 2010
Location: London, UK

Description
Aldgate, one of the medieval gates of London, sits between the old City and the new eastern development for the 2012 Olympics. The Aldgate Aerial Park resists the binary relationship of the traditional gate typology. More than just a singular threshold between one urban zone and another, the network of vaults span multiple streets and pathways. Rather than a simple opening between one place and another, it expands out into the city and forms its own identity as a new urban park. The aerial park creates a space of relaxation and community above the chaos of the city streets. The cells of the park include amphitheaters, gardens, restrooms, and open spaces. Rather than reinforce the dividing line between new and old London, the new gate attempts to create a spatial blur that brings people together.

Sietch Nevada

Sectional perspective of underground city

Sectional perspective of underground city

View of the urban life amoun the water bank canals

View of the urban life among the water bank canals

Site plan

Site plan

Plan, above ground (left) and below ground (right)

Plan, above ground (left) and below ground (right)

Site model

Site model

Detail of site model

Detail of site model

Year: 2009
Location: 37°46’20.10″N, 117°31’57.38″W
Exhibition: Out of Water | innovative technologies in arid climates at the University of Toronto

Description: In Frank Herbert’s famous1965 novel Dune, he describes a planet that has undergone nearly complete desertification. Dune has been called the “first planetary ecology novel” and forecasts a dystopian world without water. The few remaining inhabitants have secluded themselves from their harsh environment in what could be called subterranean oasises. Far from idyllic, these havens, known as sietch, are essentially underground water storage banks. Water is wealth in this alternate reality. It is preciously conserved, rationed with strict authority, and secretly hidden and protected.

Although this science fiction novel sounded alien in 1965, the concept of a water-poor world is quickly becoming a reality, especially in the American Southwest. Lured by cheap land and the promise of endless water via the powerful Colorado River, millions have made this area their home. However, the Colorado River has been desiccated by both heavy agricultural use and global warming to the point that it now ends in an intermittent trickle in Baja California. Towns that once relied on the river for water have increasingly begun to create underground water banks for use in emergency drought conditions. However, as droughts are becoming more frequent and severe, these water banks will become more than simply emergency precautions.

Sietch Nevada projects waterbanking as the fundamental factor in future urban infrastructure in the American Southwest. Sietch Nevada is an urban prototype that makes the storage, use, and collection of water essential to the form and performance of urban life. Inverting the stereotypical Southwest urban patterns of dispersed programs open to the sky, the Sietch is a dense, underground community. A network of storage canals is covered with undulating residential and commercial structures. These canals connect the city with vast aquifers deep underground and provide transportation as well as agricultural irrigation. The caverns brim with dense, urban life: an underground Venice. Cellular in form, these structures constitute a new neighborhood typology that mediates between the subterranean urban network and the surface level activities of water harvesting, energy generation, and urban agriculture and aquaculture. However, the Sietch is also a bunker-like fortress preparing for the inevitable wars over water in the region.

Credit: Andrew Kudless (Design), Nenad Katic (Visualization), Tan Nguyen, Pia-Jacqlyn Malinis, Jafe Meltesen-Lee, Benjamin Barragan (Model)

S_Window

2D_window20

window-20_matsys

win_23_college

Year: 2008
Location: London

Description: Matsys was asked to submit quick sketch designs for temporary window installation in a London department store. Several windows were considered with potential designs for each. The design for the corner window explored self-organizing branching structures through the use of elastic cords and free nodes. The structure’s shape would be determined by the location of the upper and lower constraints and the self-organization of the individual members.

The side window builds off of the research in the R_Screen and Sky Rail projects. The bone-like wall opens and closes view into the store according to the direction of travel on the sidewalk.

Sky Rail

Final Prototype (Image by SUM Arch)

Final Prototype (Image by SUM Arch)

Final Design (Image by SUM Arch)

Final Design (Image by SUM Arch)

Site Diagram (Image by SUM Arch)

Site Diagram (Image by SUM Arch)

Process: Step 1: Select Guidelines

Process: Step 1: Select Guidelines

Process: Step 2: Mesh creation through script

Process: Step 2: Mesh creation through script

Process: Step 3: Convert to Polysurface

Process: Step 3: Convert to Polysurface

Process: Step 4: Convert to Mesh and Weld Seams

Process: Step 4: Convert to Mesh and Weld Seams

Process: Step 5: Smooth Mesh

Process: Step 5: Smooth Mesh

View inside the railing of the twisting holes

View inside the railing of the twisting holes

Prototype image showing the angled aperatures

Prototype image showing the angled aperatures

Year: 2007-2008
Location: San Francisco

Description: Matsys was hired as a computational geometry consultant by SUM Arch on this residential project to help create tools to design a stair railing. Using a series of user-generated guidelines, the script builds a irregular cellular pattern of apertures on the railing. Based on a field of attractors, the apertures rotate in the plane of the railing causing the entire railing to open towards certain views as a person walks up or down the stair. Dozens of script iterations were explored before the final design was achieved.

SmartCloud

Physical prototype by Cook + Fox

Physical prototype by Cook + Fox

Digital prototype: natural light

Digital prototype: natural light

Digital prototype: artifical light

Digital prototype: artifical light

Digital prototype: night lighting

Digital prototype: night lighting

Labeling system for prototype

Labeling system for prototype

sk_08_diagram-4

Ceiling plan of built prototype

Ceiling plan of built prototype

Unrolled cells for laser-cutting

Unrolled cells for laser-cutting

Early design prototypes

Early design prototypes

Early Design Prototypes: Scripts were created for each scenario for design team exploration and testing

Early Design Prototypes: Scripts were created for each scenario for design team exploration and testing

Early Design Prototypes: Fabrication issues

Early Design Prototypes: Fabrication issues

Early Design Prototype: Fabrication diagram

Early Design Prototype: Fabrication diagram

Early Design Prototype: Plan of Scheme 5

Early Design Prototype: Plan of Scheme 5

Early Design Prototype: Section through Scheme 05

Early Design Prototype: Section through Scheme 05

Year: 2007
Location: New York

Description: Matsys provided computational design consulting for Cook + Fox on this project. The project was sited in the lobby of a fashion designer’s studio in a Manhattan tower. The design team needed tools to help them model, visualize, and fabricate their design. Matsys created several rhinoscripts that could be used by the design team to iteratively explore their design concept.

N_Table

N_Table at KSA

N_Table at KSA

N_Table with C_Wall in background

N_Table with C_Wall in background

Detail

Detail

On site

On site

In use

In use

Ronnie stacking the cells

Ronnie stacking the cells

Year: 2007
Location: Columbus, Ohio

Description: This table was designed for small video installation by Norah Zuniga Shaw. The table is made from roughly 200 individual folded paper cells. Using a variation of the rhino-qhull algorithm, each voronoi cell face is further triangulated to create a more rigid structure. The geometry of cells becomes increasingly irregular from bottom to top. The top of the table is covered with rear-projection fabric while the projection and audio equipment and computer are all contained at the bottom of the table.

Credits: Andrew Kudless and Ronnie Parsons

C_Wall

View from outside the gallery door

View from outside the gallery door

C_Wall with shadows on floor

C_Wall with shadows on floor

The zigzag plan of the wall creates an increased structural stiffness

The zigzag plan of the wall creates an increased structural stiffness

DSC_3371

Dense pattern of shadows

Dense pattern of shadows

IMG_1277

Process diagram

Process diagram

Year: 2006
Location: Banvard Gallery, Knowlton School of Architecture, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Size: 12′ x 4′ x 8′

Description: This project is the latest development in an ongoing area of research into cellular aggregate structures that has examined honeycomb and voronoi geometries and their ability to produce interesting structural, thermal, and visual performances. The voronoi algorithm is used in a wide range of fields including satellite navigation, animal habitat mapping, and urban planning as it can easily adapt to local contingent conditions. Within our research, it is used as a tool to facilitate the translation and materialization of data from particle-simulations and other point-based data. Through this operation, points are transformed into volumetric cells which can be unfolded, CNC cut, and reassembled into larger aggregates.

Credits: Andrew Kudless and Ivan Vukcevich with Ryan Palider, Zak Snider, Austin Poe, Camie Vacha, Cassie Matthys, Christopher Friend, Nicholas Cesare, Anthony Rodriguez, Mark Wendell, Joel Burke, Brandon Hendrick, Chung-tzu Yeh, Doug Stechschultze, Gene Shevchenko, Kyu Chun, Nick Munoz, and Sabrina Sierawski, and Ronnie Parsons

Tulum Site Museum

Aerial view of museum with Tulum city and ocean in the background

Aerial view of museum with Tulum city and ocean in the background

Site location

Site location

Site Circulation

Site Circulation

Strata

Strata

Surface Density

Surface Density

Site Plan

Site Plan

Floor Plan

Floor Plan

Aggregate structures

Aggregate structures

Year: 2005
Location: Tulum Mayan Ruin, Mexico
Description: This competition entry for an archaeological museum outside a Mayan ruin on the Cancun peninsula continues our research into cellular aggregate structures.

Site Location
As an extremely important archeological site, the primary concern at Tulum is the minimization of human impact on the landscape and historical artifacts. This is achieved through the relocation of the museum site to align with the existing flow of movement. This location avoids clearing large areas of forest as well as places the museum between the existing entrance and exit to the ruins.

Program + Circulation
Through the relocation of the museum site, a series of parallel circulation routes are established in relation to the program. The zone closest to the city wall will remain as the main path to the city entrance. The next band out is the museum which is considered as an alternate path to the city. Visitors enter on one end and exit near the entrance to the ruins. The outer band of program contains the offices, toilets, and cafeteria.

Strata
A series of concrete strips are arranged perpendicular to the flow of circulation. These strata are the foundations for the museum above and as retaining walls on the sloped landscape. In addi¬tion they choreograph a spatial rhythm that is experienced as the visitor moves through the site. Visually, they appear as submerged walls, echoing the existing ruins on the site.

Surface Density
In between the strata a paving system is laid whose geometry is based on the density of movement on the landscape. Areas of high density and low density circulation are paved with a differenti¬ated pattern that allows for both small and large size tiles simultaneously.

Aggregate Structures
The museum walls and roofs are composed of a 3D voronoi tile system which explores the nature of aggregate structures through voids rather than mass. The structure relates directly to the stone aggregate walls of the Tulum site: the structure could be considered as the materialization of the voids between the individual stones. Thus, the museum structure refers to the existing tectonic yet renders it lightweight and airy. It is the invisible made visible.

Voronoi Morphologies

Prototype testing algorithm

Prototype testing algorithm

Prototype detail

Prototype detail

2.5D surface voronoi drawings

2.5D surface voronoi drawings

2.5D surface voronoi FDM model

2.5D surface voronoi FDM model

2.5D surface voronoi FDM model

2.5D surface voronoi FDM model

3D voronoi drawings

3D voronoi drawings

3D paper prototype

3D paper prototype

3D paper prototype detail

3D paper prototype detail

Plaster prototype

Plaster prototype

Plaster prototype

Plaster prototype

Year: 2005-2006
Location: Columbus, Ohio
Description: Voronoi Morphologies is the latest development in an ongoing area of research into cellular aggregate structures. The voronoi algorithm is used in a wide range of fields including satellite navigation, animal habitat mapping, and urban planning as it can easily adapt to local contingent conditions. Within our research, it is used as a tool to facilitate the translation and materialization of data from particle-simulations and other point-based data into volumetric form. Through this process, it becomes much easier to produce highly differentiated structures that are responsive to local performance criteria.

The project was developed though both 2D and 3D voronoi cellular structures. In both cases, a field of points is used to determine regions of space, or cells, that are closer to a certain point than any other point. As the cells are not constrained by a fixed geometric topology, the cells properties can be tuned in much more specific ways than a tradition rectangular or hexagonal cell arrangement. A custom-designed script was written to connect Rhino with Qhull which did the actual voronoi calculations. The script also digitally unfolds, labels, and prepares the geometry for CNC fabrication.

This technique was developed in collaboration with Jelle Feringa of EZCT Architecture and Design Research in Paris.

For more information about computing convex hulls, voronoi diagrams, and other triangulations, check out the qhull website. Qhull is used in Matlab and many other computational geometry applications.

Suture Chair

SUTURE_CHAIR_01

SUTURE_CHAIR_03

SUTURE_CHAIR_04

SUTURE_CHAIR_05

SUTURE_CHAIR_06

UNFOLDED

strong>Date: 2005
Description: An extension of the Honeycomb Morphologies/Manifold research project, the Suture Chair project uses a double-layer honeycomb system to provide both strength and flexibility to the chair. The shape of the chair itself is developed through multiple sources. The chair is designed to enable rocking and also multiple seating configurations. The outside boundary of the chair is in the shape of a suture curve, the same curve used to stitch tennis balls and baseballs together. This ring provides a boundary on which a mathematically defined minimal surface known as a Enneper surface spans. Through an iterative process whereby different variables were used within the equation, a design was established which had a desired maximum thickness at the edges and a minimum thickness at the center. Thus, where the honeycomb is the least dense, its cell depth is greatest. Likewise, the center of the chair has the highest density of honeycomb members and thus requires the least amount of structural depth in the cell.

Honeycomb Morphologies

Manifold Installation at the AA Projects Review 2004, Photo: Francis Ware

Manifold Installation at the AA Projects Review 2004, Photo: Francis Ware

Variable transparency of the wall

Variable transparency of the wall

Detail of Manifold

Detail of Manifold

Floor detail of Manifold Installation

Floor detail of Manifold Installation

Manifold Installation

Manifold Installation

Manifold Installation rendering

Manifold Installation rendering

Cut files for Manifold

Cut files for Manifold

Manifold Installation process

Manifold Installation process

Honeycomb prototypes

Honeycomb prototypes

Honeycomb Prototype detail

Honeycomb Prototype detail

Honeycomb Prototype exploring cell depth and curvature parametric link

Honeycomb Prototype exploring cell depth and curvature parametric link

Plaster form-finding model

Plaster form-finding model

Plaster form-finding model

Plaster form-finding model

Date: 2004
Location: London, UK
Description: This research was pursued as part of a MA dissertation in Emergent Technologies and Design at the Architectural Association. The central aim of the research is the development of a material system with a high degree of integration between its design and performance. This integration is inherent to natural material systems for they have been developed through evolutionary means which intricately tie together the form, growth, and behavior of the organism. In industrial material systems, the level of integration is far lower resulting in wide and potentially problematic gaps between its means of production, its geometric and material definition, and its environmental performance. This research explores integration strategies for a particular industrially produced material system for use in architectural applications.
This research develops a honeycomb system that is able to adapt to diverse performance requirements through the modulation of the system’s inherent geometric and material parameters while remaining within the limits of available production technologies. The Honeycomb Morphologies Project is based on the desire to form an integrated and generative design strategy using a biomimetic approach to architectural design and fabrication.
The system developed in this research presents an open framework through which the designer can work, enabling a more integral relationship between the various conflicting and overlapping issues in the development of an architectural project. The research represents a tool, waiting to be actively used with specific project data and embedded in a built artifact.
The Manifold installation was a large scale prototype constructed for the AA 2004 Projects Review. The installation explored the research developed in the Honeycomb Morphologies Project and extended it to a more architectural scale.
Credits: Andrew Kudless with help from Jayendra Sha, Nikolaos Stathopoulos, Giorgos Kailis, Matthew Johnson, Ranidia Lemon, Muchuan Xu, Grace Li, Scott Cahill, and Wongpat Suetrong.

C_Tower

C_Tower Elevation

C_Tower Elevation

C_Tower Plans: Plan ocillates between 3 sides and 12 sides

C_Tower Plans: Plan ocillates between 3 sides and 12 sides

Year: 2004
Location: London

Description: This short (1-day) research project explores the use of large scale cellular structures in the design of towers. The tower is built up from a series of cells, each spanning 15 floors. The nature of each cell is to expand horizontally as load is applied. This force is countered by tension in the floor plates. The facade is composed of two types of cells, one of no curvature and one of single curvature. A parametric model was produced to explore the rotation, height, and size of floors.

Cellular Form-Finding

Plaster form-finding model

Plaster form-finding model

Plaster form-finding model

Plaster form-finding model

Analysis of prototype

Analysis of prototype

Plaster prototype 2

Plaster prototype 2

Plaster prototype 2 detail

Plaster prototype 2 detail

Various plaster prototypes using balloons withing balloons

Various plaster prototypes using balloons withing balloons

Plaster prototype

Plaster prototype

Plaster prototype

Plaster prototype

Year: 2004-2009
Location: London

Description: Inspired by the work of scientists William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Joseph Plateau, and D’Arcy Thompspn as well as the designer Frei Otto on the geometry of cellular bodies, this ongoing project explores physical form-finding techniques and aggregate structures. In an attempt to embody the knowledge gained through an investigation of the physics and mathematics of minimal surfaces, surface tension, and cellular aggregates by Kelvin, Plateau, and Thompson, the project looked to physical experiments that would reveal the basic laws of aggregation. Cellular bodies (water filled balloons) were allowed to self-organize into packed clusters. By casting the negative space around the cellular aggregates, it was possible to easily fabrication what are called cellular solids (solid foams). The research began in London while at the Architectural Association and has continued over the years, informing many other projects such as C_Wall, Voronoi Morphologies, and P_Wall.